We get to know about a person or a thing through a verb as it is the most essential part of a sentence. The word ‘verb’ comes from the Latin word called ‘Verbum’.
- Linking verbs
- Transitive verbs
- Intransitive verbs
- Ambitransitive verbs
Every verb consist of a subject such as a person or a thing which does the action. The biggest difference between a linking, transitive and intransitive verb is whether there is a presence of an object or not.
Keith is a doctor
In this sentence, The message says ‘Keith=doctor’.
Linking verbs will be useless if they are used alone. To complete a sentence, the linking verbs will need a ‘subject complement’ to complete the meaning of the sentence. Linking verbs will always be active and they are also called “copula verbs”.
Transitive verbs will always have an object whose actions will be transformed from the subject to the object. Transitive verbs can function as active or passive. There are transitive verbs with one object and there are transitive verbs with two objects. On the other hand, Monotransitive verbs will only have a single object. On the contrary, ditransitive verbs will have two objects: direct object and indirect object.
There will be no object in intransitive verbs. Very often, the intransitive verbs make sense when they are used alone. Note that intransitive verbs will have to be active.
- She lives in New York.
- Tell your friend to stop talking now.
- Are your dogs barking?
- The situation hasn’t improved.
- She died a long time after the heart attack.
Depending on the context, several verbs can be used in the transitive way or the intransitive way and we call them “ambitransitive verbs.”
- He drinks at night. (intransitive)
- He is reading a novel. (monotransitive)
- He wrote Henry the letter. (ditransitive)
The BASE of the verb which is preceded by the word ‘to’ is called as the Infinitive but ‘to’ is not an essential part of the infinitive. We use the Infinitive without the word ‘to’ after verbs like will, would, shall, should, may, might, can, could, and must.
We use the Infinitive to qualify a verb, an adjective, a noun, and also a sentence. An Infinitive can be active or passive.
VERBS OF INCOMPLETE PREDICATION
Usually, the Verbs of Incomplete Predication denote the idea of seeming, becoming, being, etc.
- The child plays.
- The child seems to be playing.
In both of the given sentences, there are Intransitive Verbs present.
However, The sentence will make sense if it is “The child plays.”
But, “The child seems” will not make complete sense.
For an intransitive verb to make complete sense, it is important for it to have a word. (e.g ‘play’). We call these kinds of verbs as Verbs of Incomplete Predication.
20 Verb Patterns
- Subject + Verb
- Subject + Verb + Subject Complement
- Subject + Verb + Direct Object
- Subject + Verb + Indirect Object + Direct Object
- Subject + Verb + Direct Object + prepositional object
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Adjective
- Subject + Verb + Preposition + Prepositional Object
- Subject + Verb + to-Infinitive
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + to-Infinitive
- Subject + Verb + Gerund
- Subject + verb + Noun/Pronoun + Present Participle
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Plain infinitive
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Past Participle
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + (to be +) Complement
- Subject + Verb + that-clause
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + that-clause
- Subject + verb + Interrogative + clause
- Subject + Verb + Noun/Pronoun + Interrogative + Clause
- Subject + Verb + Interrogative + to-Infinitive
- Subject + verb + Noun/Pronoun + Interrogative + to-infinitive